IoT Security testing Objectives
The number of connected devices has increased substantially in recent years, from devices that process health data: smartwatches, scales or bracelets, to devices that handle home security such as electronic locks.
The widespread use of these devices has led to an increase on the attack surface exposed to malicious actors, both for the company that manages them and for the users who use them on a daily basis.
To assess the security status of these technologies, attacks are modeled depending on the specifications of the device and the data it manages.
The result of this IoT security audit effort will allow the client to know the security stance of its infrastructure including possible solutions to the problems found.
IoT Security testing benefits
The benefits of the execution of IoT security testing include but are not limited to:
Knowing the potential security problems within the device, including vulnerabilities in the rest of the components of the embedded operating system.
Understanding the security flaws in the device data flow: in the local connections through short-range networks, in its processing on company servers if any, as well as possible solutions at both technical and design levels.
Analysis of the security implications derived from the structure and technologies used by the IoT framework.
Identification of weaknesses in the physical device through hardware hacking tests and analysis of the device firmware with reverse engineering tests.
IoT Security assessment Overview
IoT device security audits typically examine all exposed infrastructure that manages the device, including backend services, wireless connections to the device and ports exposed by the device.
Short-range networks such as NFC, Bluetooth, and ZigBee typically require specialized equipment to be audited. This, along with the nature of the networks themselves, contributes to the fact that security is not reinforced with as much vigor as other, more well-known networks. The Tarlogic team has the tools and knowledge to audit the security of these types of networks.
The second step of these audits is to look for vulnerabilities in the backend services that support the infrastructure, these vulnerabilities are very similar to other web services. It is particularly important to look at the type of data, especially if the devices work with sensitive information.
Finally, the ports exposed by the devices which are usually analyzed in case there is any kind of debug connection.
IoT security audit FAQs
What is security testing in IoT?
IoT security testing is the process of evaluating IoT devices to find security vulnerabilities in both hardware and software. The testing process must consider risks to both device and network assets to ensure secure operation and avoid unwanted access from malicious actors.
In summary, security testing in IoT identifies threats and vulnerabilities to avoid unwanted network access, data manipulation, information exfiltration, privacy issues or any other kind of attack.
What are the security requirements in IoT?
Security requirements specify security necessities that must be accounted for and they are usually categorized in:
- Confidentiality: Only users that are granted the permissions must be able to access the data. To ensure it, measures like avoiding universal passwords and using secured interfaces must be in place.
- Integrity: The data must be altered only by allowed actors. Tests shall be performed to ensure that data signing with proven cryptography is made.
- Availability: Services must be accessible to users. Useful measures include automatic software updates, provisioning of attack evasion mechanisms, the usage of vulnerability reporting programs and security expiration dates.
Overall, it’s important to ensure security by default as part of the development and installation process, using security tested software when possible.
How to audit the security of your IoT?
The best practices in security teaches the best way to perform a security assessment is to use a standard or a guide to test the more usuals weakness. The OWASP Top 10 Internet of Things (2018) standard aim to test these:
- Weak, guessable or hardcoded passwords
- Insecure network Services
- Insecure ecosystem interfaces
- Lack of secure update mechanism
- Use of insecure or outdated components
- Insufficient privacy protection
- Insecure data transfer and storage
- Lack of device management
- Insecure default settings
- Lack if physical hardening
How to perform a Bluetooth security assessment?
The complexity of the Bluetooth standard, the existence of multiple implementations, versions, and the absence of adequate Bluetooth security methodologies and tools have led to an increase in Bluetooth security risks in recent years.
Both for Bluetooth Classic and for Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Tarlogic has developed Bluetooth pentesting methodologies and Bluetooth applications with which to carry out a complete Bluetooth security audit.
Bluetooth security testing is important because of the impact it has on privacy for users on IoT devices. To protect a Bluetooth device, technical tests are performed on the following areas: discovery, pairing, authentication, encryption, services, and application.